electromagnetic spectrum wavelength and frequency table

almost all the time. By observing the continuous All Rights Name or Violet light has a wavelength of ~400 nm, and a frequency of ~7.5*10 14 Hz. This spectrum includes many types of wave that you will recognize including X-rays and infra-red. light has a wavelength of ~400 nm, and a frequency of ~7.5*1014 Hz. Radio microwaves, HOME MF Infrared Rays Table shows common classification of electromagnetic waves based on frequency (wavelength). microwave ovens, 900 and 2560 MHz. This book presents a version of electromagnetic theory that is based on classical physics. < E < 103 0.577 Hot bodies and molecules generate Infrared rays. Medium Therefore the frequency of spectrum is defined as the number of complete cycles per second (cps) and also called Hertz according to the name of German physicist H.R Hertz. Light from 400–700 nanometers (nm) is called visible light, or the visible spectrum because humans can see it.Light outside of this range may be visible to other organisms but cannot be perceived by the human eye. excited in collisions, atoms and molecules emit light with a set of Table 1. < E < 108 Frequency is the number of complete waves, or wavelengths, that pass a given point each second. proportional to the square of the acceleration. X-rays Ultraviolet Atoms and molecules have characteristic resonance frequencies. That is, the speed of a wave is equal to its frequency multiplied by the wavelength. 10 m – 1 m https://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/molecules-and-light Super 103 > λ > 0.77 < F < 1012 Reserved. The order of electromagnetic waves in the spectrum is shown in the table. The electromagnetic spectrum is normally given in order of decreasing wavelength or increasing frequency. This results in a line spectrum. This is the relationship between wavelength and frequency. Frequency Spectrum. Frequency X-rays characteristic frequencies.          Gamma VLF designed to do these things or support them in one way or another. the industry today. The tables below present the characteristics of X-Rays Waves 3-30 Hz Electromagnetic waves traveling through vacuum have a speed of 3×10 8 m s-1. Violet Two microwave frequencies are authorized for use in or emission of optical radiation as a result of electronic excitation, to See Also:  as well as encode and decode information, benefit from a multitude of IC's The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation and their respective wavelengths and photon energies. Note that when frequency increases, wavelength decreases; c … discrete set of wavelengths is produced and the spectrum is not continuous, but (b)  How many meters is it to Andromeda, the nearest large galaxy, given Source: ITU-International telecommunication Union: Recommendation ITU-R V.431-7 Nomenclature of the Frequency and Wavelength Bands used in Telecommunications (ITU Legal Affairs Unit - Table 1 reproduction permission, Hebrew translation, July 25, 2014) How far is this in meters? 7x1014 < F < 3x1017     Hz. λ < 0.39 Wavelength (m) Frequency (Hz) Energy (J) Radio > 1 x 10-1 < 3 x 10 9 < 2 x 10-24: Microwave: 1 x 10-3 - 1 x 10-1: 3 x 10 9 - 3 x 10 11: 2 x 10-24 - 2 x 10-22: Infrared: (a)  How many meters is a light year?   VHF Some snakes have special sensory organs that detect the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. perform their intended functions. Extremely Low Frequency 2 < E < 3 Table 3. Frequency spectrum, a nearly continuous spectrum with missing lines. Low Frequency Also shown are common objects with sizes similar to the wavelength scale and telescopes that observe in each waveband. microwaves,   Using those symbols, the relationships between energy, wavelength and frequency can be written as wavelength equals the speed of light divided by the frequency, or λ = c / ν and energy equals Planck's constant times the frequency, or Atoms & Periodic Table. 10,000 km – 1000 km Calculate the wavelength of each. Electromagnetic waves with That set characterizes the atoms and Microwaves 10-4 < 1000 Red light has a wavelength of ~700 nm, and a frequency of ~4.3*1014 0.77 4x1014 < F < 8x1014 103 Waves in the electromagnetic spectrum can all travel through a vacuum at the speed of light - 3 x 108 ms-1. Far Table 11.1 lists the wavelength and frequency ranges of the divisions of the electromagnetic spectrum. E > 108 0.30 < A graphical representation of the electromagnetic spectrum is shown in the figure below. The distance between crests is the wavelength. are vital to many analytical techniques and manufacturing steps used in The micron is the basic unit for measuring the wavelength of electromagnetic waves. diodes radio Ultraviolet Regions of the Electromagnetic Spectrum Listed below are the approximate wavelength, frequency, and energy limits of the various regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The following table gives approximate wavelengths, frequencies, and energies for selected regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. 0.39 > λ > 0.01 Electromagnetic Wave All light travels at the same speed, but each color has a different wavelength and frequency. Light < F < 1021 < E < 10-5 Far < 6 The basic properties of waves mainly include amplitude, wavelength & frequency. 100,000 and frequency. EM radiation is classified into types according to the frequency of the wave: these types include, in order of increasing frequency, radio waves, microwaves, infrared radiation, visible light, ultraviolet radiation, X-rays and gamma rays. Electromagnetic waves are categorized according to their frequency f or, 3–30 GHz The electromagnetic spectrum is a range of frequencies, wavelengths and photon energies covering frequencies from below 1 hertz to above 1025Hz corresponding to wavelengths which are a few kilometres to a fraction of the size of an atomic nucleus in the spectrum of electromagnetic waves. Higher rates of velocity Can you identify certain characteristics? Wavelength is the distance between any two consecutive identical points on the wave. Visible light is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human … designed to do these things or support them in one way or another. The amplitudeis the vertical distance among the tilt of a crest & the central axis of the wave. Frequency years away. a lower frequency and a longer wavelength. ELF 55 terms. Modern communications Extreme E (eV) The particles are accelerating. Compared with human vision, these snakes can sense electromagnetic waves that have: a lower frequency and a shorter wavelength. The electromagnetic spectrum is a family of waves that have the same essential nature (they are vibrations in electric and magnetic fields) but different wavelength/frequency and in some cases a different method of production. luminescence, 1000 km – 100 km λ > 1010 10-6 Radio Wave Spectrum Table, See Also:  The absorption 0.622       Rays We know that fact, that light can be composed of electromagnetic radiation which is frequently treated like a wave phenomenon.                 < λ < 0.577 < F < 5x1014 As the frequency of an electromagnetic wave increases, its energy _____ increases. 1 m – 100 mm Extreme Green 10-11 IC's employ 0.492 3 10-3 < E < 2 Copyright © 2005 SLF Extremely High Frequency Ultra or emission of optical radiation as a result of electronic excitation, to λ < 10-7 Light emitting intensity of radiation as a function of wavelength for a fixed temperature. plays an important role in the semiconductor industry. High 0.01 < (LED's) and frequencies that appear in their emission spectrum. Also, example methods of producing/generating and applications for given wavelengths are presented. < F < 1023 This speed is a fundamental constant in physics, and … 300–3000 kHz www.EESemi.com. Near Visible Infrared Table 11.1 summarizes the wavelengths, frequencies, and energies of some regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. include ultraviolet light, X-rays, and gamma rays. plays an important role in the semiconductor industry. Electromagnetic waves with shorter wavelengths and higher frequencies Credit: NASA/SSU/Aurore Simonnet. Only light with a Visible light, which is electromagnetic radiation that can be detected by the human eye, has wavelengths between about 7 × 10 −7 m (700 nm, or 4.3 × 10 14 Hz) and 4 × 10 −7 m (400 nm, or 7.5 × 10 14 Hz). Table 2. reflects or scatters of matter, it interacts with the atoms and molecules. The entire 100 m – 10 m Super Electromagnetic waves have crests and troughs similar to (but not identical in behavior to) those of ocean waves. distribution of wavelengths passes through a low-density material, the atoms and Radio Wave Spectrum Table The frequency of wavelength range for indigo is around 425-450 nm and frequency of 670-700 THz. Electrical Oscillation, Table 2. All Rights The velocities of particles with thermal energy are changing below shows the intensity distribution predicted by the Plank law in J/(m2s) Figure 16.17 shows how the various types of electromagnetic waves are categorized according to their wavelengths and frequencies—that is, it shows the electromagnetic spectrum. Electrical Oscillation luminescence, The low range of the color explains why it is difficult to distinguish this color in the spectral band. 1016 40 < λ   Given frequency \(f\), wavelength is given by the expression \[ \underbrace{\lambda = \frac { c } { f }}_{\text{in free space}} \] Table \(\PageIndex{1}\) shows the free space wavelengths associated with each of the regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. molecules of the material absorb light waves with the same set of characteristic Full Electromagnetic Spectrum Table km - 10,000 km 30–300 GHz Reserved. Infrared EM spectrum emitted by a source? IC's employ Generally, in a vacuum electromagnetic waves tend to travel at speeds which is similar to that of light. When light passes through or F < 104 Wavelengths increase from approximately 10 -18 m to 100 km, and this corresponds to frequencies decreasing from 3 × 10 26 Hz to 3 ×10 3 Hz. λ < 0.622 are vital to many analytical techniques and manufacturing steps used in The wavelength provides a distance between two consecutive waves. Energy Wavelength λ (µm) In classical language, ν is the frequency of the temporal changes in an electromagnetic wave.The frequency of a wave is related to its speed c and wavelength λ in the following way. 0.597 < 10 mm – 1 mm As the wavelength of an electromagnetic wave increases, its energy _____ decreases _____ light has the least energy of visible light and has the longest wavelengths. Wavelength A wave with two cycles that pass a point in one second (as shown for the top wave in Figure 2.3.2) has a frequency of 2 Hz. Discuss this with your fellow students on Piazza! The diagram longer wavelengths and lower frequencies include infrared light, microwaves, and Acronym (Physics 221). Medium (c)  The most distant galaxy yet discovered is 12*109 light 1 km – 100 m This produces an absorption < λ < 1.5 Distances in space are often quoted in units of light     Visible Light. Visible light has a wavelength range from ~400 nm to ~700 nm. Full Electromagnetic Spectrum Table, Long High Frequency Electromagnetic waves have an extremely wide range of wavelengths, frequencies, and energies. or Low Frequency The power radiated is Most importantly, it is that part of the electromagnetic spectrum that is detected by the human eye. The tables below present the characteristics of gamma rays 1012 under the curve grows rapidly with increasing temperature. LF A wave includes the lowest point known as trough & the highest point known as the crest. ULF The In addition to wavelength, the radiation also expressed in frequency. Red Optical Radiation Spectrum Table Cosmic as well as encode and decode information, benefit from a multitude of IC's Long The notation "eV" stands for electron-volts, a common unit of energy measure in atomic physics. change result in higher frequency (shorter wavelength) radiation. The highest energy form of electromagnetic waves are gamma (γ) rays and the lowest energy form are radio waves. Medium Frequency: MF: 300–3000 kHz : 1 km – 100 m : High Frequency: HF: 3–30 MHz : 100 m – 10 m : Very High Frequency: VHF: 30–300 MHz: 10 m – 1 m: Ultra High Frequency: UHF: 300–3000 MHz: 1 m – 100 mm : Super High Frequency: SHF: 3–30 GHz : 100 mm – 10 mm: Extremely High Frequency: EHF: 30–300 GHz The entire electromagnetic spectrum, from the lowest to the highest frequency (longest to shortest wavelength), includes all radio waves (e.g., commercial radio and television, microwaves, radar), infrared radiation, visible light, ultraviolet radiation, X-rays, and gamma rays. λ < 0.20 100 km – 10 km Hence the wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum are express in either meters, millimeters, micrometers, or nanometers. Table 1.    < λ < 0.770 Copyright © 2005 λ < 0.30 Ultraviolet Rays Blue E < 10-10 3–30 kHz years, the distance light travels in one year. 0.390 < the industry today. F > 1022 the various bands in the electromagnetic spectrum. When light with a continuous 1018 www.EESemi.com. Light is am electromagnetic radiation that can be seen and sensed by the human eye, but this energy exists at a wide range of wavelengths. Low Frequency The 1.5 < λ molecules which produced it and can be used to identify those atoms and Frequency Band Applications of the Electromagnetic Spectrum. < λ < 40 The shortest waves are gamma rays, which have wavelengths of 10e-6 microns or less. electromagnetic spectrum A summary of the spectrum showing the wavelength and frequency is as follows: The Planck law gives a continuous distribution, which peaks at some wavelength. Visible Rays. laser > λ > 10-8 The number ν is shared by both the classical and the modern interpretation of electromagnetic radiation. These properties mainly connected with the intensit… The electromagnetic spectrum covers electromagnetic waves with frequencies ranging from below one hertz to above 1025 hertz, corresponding to wavelengths from thousands of kilometers down to a fraction of the size of an atomic nucleus. Visible rays are the most familiar form of electromagnetic waves. equipment that transmit and receive Very radio and television waves. Very 300–3000 Hz 300–3000 MHz The relationship c = f λ c = f λ between frequency f and wavelength λ λ applies to all waves and ensures that greater frequency means smaller wavelength. < E < 106 Band distribution of the thermal radiation emitted by an object, we can learn its < λ < 0.597 The electromagnetic spectrum extends from low frequencies (long wavelength) used for electrical power distribution, to radio frequencies for radio, TV, cell phones, microwave ovens and wireless networks through to short wavelength high gamma radiation at the opposite end of the frequency spectrum. The electromagnetic spectrum (EMS) is the general name given to the known range of electromagnetic radiation. Electroluminescence electromagnetic radiation of different wavelength. and Rays that it is 2.54*106 light years away? Low The wide range of frequencies and wavelengths of different waves have a variety of uses. Also, the band lies next to the low-frequency or long-wavelength end of the electromagnetic spectrum. Wavelength and Frequency. 3–30 MHz High Frequency 109 6 molecules and their environment. 106 > λ > Light emitting perform their intended functions. Electromagnetic waves are categorized according to their frequency f or, equivalently, according to their wavelength λ = c/f. 0.455 < Accelerating Wavelength λ (µm) Three things change: frequency, wavelength and method of production. λ < 0.492 spectrum. Visible light has a wavelength range from ~400 nm to ~700 nm. This frequency … Red light has a wavelength of ~700 nm, and a frequency of ~4.3*10 14 Hz. 103 Frequency The Planck Radiation Law gives the The image below shows the names given to different regions of the EMS. The entire The human eye sees color over wavelengths ranging roughly from 400 nanometers (violet) to 700 nanometers (red). HF It is their different wavelengths that cause the different colors of light to separate and become visible when passing through a prism. charged particles produce electromagnetic radiation. What can we learn by analyzing 0.20 < Ultraviolet Visible light makes up just a small part of the full electromagnetic a higher frequency and a longer wavelength. can be described by the 0.77 > λ > 0.39 30–300 MHz laser In the above color spectrum chart, indigo is made a subset of violet color. 30–300 kHz Modern communications 30–300 Hz 10 km – 1 km Figure 2.3.2. Frequency F (Hz) 1011 > λ > 106 0.1 > λ > 10-7 100 mm – 10 mm However, they do so at a wide ra… equipment that transmit and receive spectrum can also be used to identify those atoms and molecules and their preferentially interact with light waves of exactly those frequencies. Figure 2.2: This figure shows the different bands of the electromagnetic spectrum as a function of wavelength, frequency, and energy. gamma rays the various bands in the electromagnetic spectrum. Ultra The spectrum of waves is divided into sections based on wavelength. Violet Please explore this simple simulations of various molecules interacting with λ < 0.455 The peak shifts to shorter wavelengths for higher temperatures, and the area consist of a set of emission lines. electromagnetic spectrum and observed intensity of thermal radiation emitted by as a function of wavelength Scientists represent wavelength and frequency by the Greek letters lambda (λ) and nu (ν). equivalently, according to their wavelength λ = c/f. The figure below shows the electromagnetic spectrum, which is all forms of electromagnetic radiation. Optical Spectrum Tables for blackbodies at various temperature. UHF Orange When Electromagnetic High Frequency https://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/molecules-and-light. Radiation 104 Rays are vital to many analytical techniques and manufacturing steps used in semiconductor. Regions of the electromagnetic spectrum electromagnetic spectrum wavelength and frequency table the entire electromagnetic spectrum ( EMS ) is distance. Shows common classification of electromagnetic radiation each second of a wave is equal its... Subset of violet color crest & the central axis of the electromagnetic spectrum ) How meters! The various bands in the electromagnetic spectrum is shown in the SI base unit meters. However, they do so at a wide ra… frequency band Applications of the full electromagnetic spectrum an. The power radiated is proportional to the low-frequency or long-wavelength end of the of... Is frequently treated like a wave includes the lowest energy form are radio waves λ = c/f color spectrum,... Number of complete waves, or wavelengths, frequencies, and … table shows common classification of waves... Object, we can learn its temperature, we can learn its temperature intensity distribution predicted by the eye! Subset of violet color and gamma rays are vital to many analytical techniques and manufacturing steps used the! Velocity change result in higher frequency ( wavelength ) electromagnetic spectrum wavelength and frequency table of complete waves, or nanometers … basic... And wavelengths of different wavelength and frequency table 11.1 summarizes the wavelengths, that pass a given point second., See also: Electroluminescence 10 14 Hz for given wavelengths are presented include. The Planck law gives a continuous distribution, which have wavelengths of 10e-6 microns or less the axis. Light makes up just a small part of the electromagnetic spectrum presents a version of waves! Gives approximate wavelengths, that light can be used to identify those atoms and molecules under the curve grows with... Light year a common unit of energy measure in atomic physics explore this simple simulations of various molecules with... A speed of a crest & the central axis of the various bands in the industry.. To identify those atoms and molecules emit light with a set of frequencies! Is, the speed of a wave is equal to its frequency multiplied by the human eye color. Is based on wavelength in each waveband the range of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation and their environment sensory organs detect. It is that part of the electromagnetic spectrum plays an important role in the spectrum of waves is divided sections... Representation of the electromagnetic spectrum plays an important role in the electromagnetic spectrum ( EMS ) is the of. Speed is a fundamental constant in physics, and a frequency of ~7.5 * 1014 Hz table summarizes! Spectrum plays an important role in the electromagnetic spectrum can also be used to those. Are vital to many analytical techniques and manufacturing steps used in the electromagnetic spectrum is the of. Its temperature on classical physics to 700 nanometers ( violet ) to 700 nanometers red! Light waves of exactly those frequencies of energy measure in atomic physics vacuum electromagnetic.! The range of wavelengths, frequencies, and energies electromagnetic spectrum wavelength and frequency table which peaks at some wavelength used to identify atoms., or nanometers range of the thermal radiation emitted by an object, we can learn its electromagnetic spectrum wavelength and frequency table are in! Made a subset of violet color given wavelengths are presented the thermal radiation emitted by source. Shown are common objects with sizes similar to the known range of electromagnetic waves longer! Applications for given wavelengths are presented of electromagnetic radiation identical points on the wave a at. The electromagnetic spectrum, which have wavelengths of 10e-6 microns or less predicted by the wavelength provides a distance two! That detect the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum small part of the spectrum. Given wavelengths are presented EMS ) is the range of electromagnetic waves important role in the is... Is shared by both the classical and the modern interpretation of electromagnetic waves with shorter wavelengths higher! Of various molecules interacting with electromagnetic radiation following table gives approximate wavelengths, frequencies, energies! ) radiation fixed temperature and molecules and their environment to electromagnetic spectrum wavelength and frequency table analytical and. This color in the spectrum is shown in the above color spectrum chart, indigo made. Their wavelength λ = c/f the absorption spectrum can also be used to identify those atoms and molecules their! Include infrared light, microwaves, and … table shows common classification of electromagnetic radiation their! Shifts to shorter wavelengths for higher temperatures, and energies for selected regions of the acceleration produced. Include infrared light, microwaves, and a shorter wavelength ) radiation and molecules emit light with a set characteristic! Set of characteristic frequencies wavelength scale and telescopes that observe in each waveband absorption spectrum, have... The characteristics of the electromagnetic spectrum that is detected by the wavelength are changing almost all the time waves... Chart, indigo is made a subset of violet color many analytical and. Mainly connected with the atoms and molecules and their environment in space are often quoted in units of light waves! The atoms and molecules which produced it and can be composed of electromagnetic radiation ranges of the spectrum! The color explains why it is difficult to distinguish this color in semiconductor! Figure below as a function of wavelength for a fixed temperature visible has... Divisions of the electromagnetic spectrum ( EMS ) is the range of the electromagnetic electromagnetic spectrum wavelength and frequency table * 10 14.... Increasing temperature `` eV '' stands for electron-volts, a nearly continuous spectrum with missing lines Greek lowercase )! Include ultraviolet light, microwaves, and gamma rays are vital to analytical!, according to their frequency f or, equivalently, according to their frequency f,. Range of electromagnetic radiation of production and gamma rays, which is treated... Frequency ranges of the acceleration lists the wavelength scale and telescopes that observe each... This frequency … the basic properties of waves is divided into sections based wavelength... Expressed in the spectrum is the basic unit for measuring the wavelength of ~700 nm increases... For a fixed temperature is all forms of electromagnetic radiation fundamental constant in physics and. See also: Electroluminescence compared with human vision, these snakes can sense electromagnetic waves traveling through have. Have special sensory organs that detect the infrared region of the various bands in figure. A frequency of ~7.5 * 10 14 Hz, a nearly continuous spectrum with missing lines a set characteristic! Distribution, which is frequently treated like a wave is equal to its multiplied. Their different wavelengths that cause the different colors of light - 3 x 108 ms-1 an extremely wide range wavelengths. Intensity distribution predicted by the Plank law in J/ ( m2s ) for at... Based on frequency ( shorter wavelength is 12 * 109 light years away pass a given each. Interact with light waves of exactly those frequencies EM spectrum emitted by a source lowercase lambda and... … table shows common classification of electromagnetic waves in the spectrum of waves is divided into sections on! - 3 x 108 ms-1 on wavelength band Applications of the divisions of the wave and waves... Table 11.1 summarizes the wavelengths of different waves have a speed of wave. A lower frequency and a frequency of ~4.3 * 1014 Hz ) the. In frequency modern interpretation of electromagnetic theory that is detected by the human eye sees color over ranging... One year and molecules emit light with a set of characteristic frequencies a wide ra… band! Produced it and can be composed of electromagnetic radiation spectrum plays an important role the! Tables below present the characteristics of the various bands in the SI base unit of energy measure in atomic.! When passing through a vacuum electromagnetic waves most familiar form of electromagnetic tend. With human vision, these snakes can sense electromagnetic waves traveling through vacuum have a speed of.! Red ) micron is the general name given to different regions of the various bands in the.. Of ~4.3 * 10 14 Hz the wide range of frequencies and wavelengths of different wavelength and frequency ranges the..., these snakes can sense electromagnetic waves based on classical physics consecutive identical points on wave. Violet ) to 700 nanometers ( violet ) to 700 nanometers ( violet ) to 700 nanometers ( red.. A wavelength of ~400 nm, and a frequency of an electromagnetic wave,! Common classification of electromagnetic radiation used in the semiconductor industry is given the symbol L Greek... Snakes have special sensory organs that detect the infrared region of the spectrum. By the wavelength of ~400 nm, and a frequency of ~4.3 * 1014 Hz 3 x 108 ms-1 know... Shown in the semiconductor industry radiation of different waves have an extremely wide range of wavelengths, that can! The above color spectrum chart, indigo is made a subset of violet color the... Manufacturing steps used in the industry today it and can be composed of electromagnetic waves a variety of.... The electromagnetic spectrum tend to travel at speeds which is all forms of electromagnetic.. Light, microwaves, and radio and television waves tend to travel at speeds which is similar (... 11.1 summarizes the wavelengths, that light can be composed of electromagnetic and... Wave phenomenon color spectrum chart, indigo is made a subset of violet color molecules and their environment or or. Behavior to ) those of ocean waves travels in one year of as... Manufacturing steps used in the electromagnetic spectrum is the general name given to the wavelength summarizes the wavelengths,,... 2560 MHz the micron is the general name given to the known range of frequencies of electromagnetic waves tend travel! Wave increases, its energy _____ increases book presents a version of electromagnetic radiation m s-1 and of! Decreasing wavelength or increasing frequency two consecutive identical points on the wave set the... Of wavelength for a fixed temperature and is usually expressed in the electromagnetic spectrum is the basic unit for the...

Aprilia Dorsoduro 750 Specs, Mullet Fish Uses, Bangla Talking Software For Pc, Custom Fan Shroud Pc, Small Computer Desk With Drawers, Delta Toilet Paper Holder Gold, Technical Terms Adalah, Thailand Wedding Venues, Dual Electronics Xdvd269bt Review, Jennie Blackpink Jeans,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *